A. Flowering Plants
More extensive information on flowering plants can be found in a separate blog post.
B. Beeches, Sweet Chestnuts and Oaks (FAGACEAE)
This is a large family worldwide, the trees being characterised by catkin-like flowers and fruit in the form of single cup-like nuts. Some species are valued timber trees.
C. Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur)
The greenish-yellow catkins of this native oak appear in April. Oak wood is hard, tough, enduring, and stands salt water, and was the mainstay of house (krucks) and ship building for centuries, and also for mechanisms of water- and windmills. It is the preferred wood for gateposts, gates, railings, oak pale fencing, and cart-wheel spokes. Other uses include ladder rungs, barrel stave making, wooden spades, hacks (tools like mattocks), heavy mallets, and pegs for fitting wooden joints. Blacksmiths' anvils were embedded in inverted oak tree root stocks. Oak bark was essential in the tanning industry, and oak bark extract was once used for malaria, as a gargle for sore throats, and for diarrhoea and dysentery. If you are going to kill a vampire the stake must be made of oak. Oak bobbins on the ends of window blind cords were thought to protect the house from lightning strikes. An ink is made from oak gall. Oak sawdust is burned in the curing and smoking of fish and ham.
Acorns can be turned into flour and a coffee substitute. If boiled and ground then a flour is obtained, and if roasted and ground then acorn 'coffee' is the result. To make a drink of the latter, steep in boiling water for 15 minutes, filter and drink.