A. Flowering Plants
More extensive information on flowering plants can be found in a separate blog post.
B. Roses (ROSACEAE)
The Rose family gives us many of our most commercially important fruits, such as the Prunus species. They have alternate leaves and 5-petalled flowers.
C. Bramble (Rubus fruticosus agg.)
Flowering from May, over 2000 microspecies have been described for our native bramble, whose long, thorny, arching stems are a common sight in the cemetery. Crawling through brambles is said to get rid of blackheads, boils and eczema, but probably you just can't see them because of the blood from the scratches. Brambles were planted on graves to stop the dead from walking. To achieve good luck, and to cure ailments, walk under a briar that has arched over and taken root. Bramble stems were once used for binding, but first the thorns were stripped off by drawing the stems through a notch cut in the top of a fence post. They are a source of a black dye. Boiling the roots, which are dug up in Autumn, gives an astringent juice, and a decoction or cordial made from the fruit is used to treat mouth and throat soreness. An infusion of blackberry leaves, or the liquor from boiling the root bark in water, is good for intestinal infections like diarrhoea and dysentery.
Blackberries are rich in vitamin C, and also make a navy-blue dye. They can be turned into excellent wine, jelly, jam and pies, the latter famously in combination with apple. For most uses they can be combined with other berries such as rowanberries, elderberries, and sloes, and also crab apples. A traditional way to preserve the last blackberries of the season was to make blackberry wine.
Recipe for Blackberry Wine
3 lb (1350g) blackberries sugar
Put the blackberries into a stone jar and add 3 dsp (6g) of sugar. Cover with a cloth and stir each day for 3 weeks. Strain the liquor through muslin, and for every pint (600 ml) of juice measured add 1 lb (450g) of sugar. Stir well and when the sugar has dissolved pour into sterilised bottles. Add to each bottle a dsp (2g) of brandy. Invert and cork each bottle and leave for a few weeks before drinking. Blackberry and Apple (or combinations of crab apple, citrus fruits, quince, gooseberry, damson, currant, sloe or rowanberry) Jelly is a national favourite.
Recipe for Blackberry and Apple Jelly
Equal weights of blackberries and apple are washed. Cut up the apples, and add both fruits to a saucepan. Cover with water and cook slowly until soft. Strain the juice through muslin, but dont squeeze or the jelly will be cloudy. Measure the volume, and add 1 lb (0.9 kg) of sugar for every pint (600 ml). Cook until the setting point has been reached and then bottle and seal. Blackberry cordial is a fine country drink.
Recipe for Blackberry Cordial
2 pt (1200ml) blackberries 1 pint (600ml) white vinegar
½ lb (225g) honey 1 lb (450g) sugar.
Pour the vinegar on to the blackberries and allow to stand for a week. Strain through a jelly bag overnight, then add the honey and sugar to the liquor. Bring to the boil then allow to cool to room temperature and bottle. Store in a cool, dark place. Dilute with water before drinking.