Jobs of Heene Cemetery Residents by Sector

The men and women buried in Heene Cemetery had jobs in a wide range of sectors. Although there were more female burials than male burials only 352 of the 1170 women (30%) had jobs compared to 657 of the 792 men (83%). This was not surprising in the 19th and early 20th century as most women had duties in the home and were dependent on husbands and fathers. They were not expected to work.

The jobs were categorised into seventeen sectors from information from censuses and marriage and death certificates. There was not enough information to classify the jobs into standard occupation codes.

Many of the buried had jobs in more than one sector. In these cases, the most senior job was categorised. Additional jobs will be discussed in later blogs.

Jobs held by women

Many of the employed women (134) worked in the service sector as maids, cooks, and housekeepers whereas only a few men (14) worked in this sector. Women (85) were also prevalent in the education sector as governesses and teachers compared to the 14 men in this sector. 52 women worked in the clothes and shoes trade as dressmakers and drapery staff. One female doctor and 21 nurses worked in the health sector. Most of the rest of the women worked in the food and drink and general sales sectors.

Jobs held by men

75 of the men served in the military or police and 75 worked in manufacture and construction mainly as tradesmen. 72 men worked in the agriculture and horticulture sector including farming and fruit growing. The finance sector was well represented with 69 men working in accounting, brokering and banking. 49 men worked in the food and drink sector and 49 men in the clothes and shoes sector. The Church accounted for 45 men, mostly clergymen of the Church of England. Over 35 men were physicians or surgeons. Another 30 men worked as solicitors, barristers and lawyers and their clerks. Fly drivers, chauffeurs, railwaymen, carters and mariners contributed to the 27 men in the transport sector.

The division of jobs by sector is displayed in the following chart.

Notably the service sector was the most represented sector for women and the least represented by men. Similarly, the military, agriculture and manufacturing sectors were dominated by male employees. The clothes and shoes sectors were equally balanced between men and women, the men being prevalent in the drapery jobs and the women covering the dressmaking roles. Only one woman worked in the law sector as a solicitor’s clerk. Surprisingly only 15% of the jobs in the administrative and clerical sector were occupied by women.

This is the first of a series of blogs about the occupations of the residents of Heene Cemetery. Further blogs will look at the individual sectors and highlight the jobs and workers within the sectors.

Written by Pat Brownbill